Water has had a significant place in the life of Turks since pre-Islamic times. Many beliefs based on the water cult emerged in the culture of ancient Turks. With Islam, water, which is one of the essential requirements for worship, has become a vital resource that should not be wasted. The fact that water is one of the basic needs of life and its emergence around beliefs has increased the importance of water. Meeting the need for water by the state or philanthropists led to the construction of different types of fountain structures in different periods.
Fountain, which means “Cheshm” in Persian and “Eye (water source)” in Turkish, is expressed with Arabic “ayn”. Fountain structures are also called as “eye, spring” among the people. These water structures, which entered Turkish as “fountains” with the influence of the Persian language, are used in the sense of water source.
Traditional Turkish fountains generally consist of a ringed mirror stone in an arched niche and a pot placed on the ground in front of it. In addition to the fountains designed as a single facade and with a single faucet, there are also fountains with more than one faucet distributed to the other facades in the open fountains.
When we look at the historical fountains in Ürgüp as well as the fountains in Mustafapaşa, it is understood that functionality is prioritized in these structures, and aesthetic concerns are put in the background. The ornament was applied within the framework of a specific and limited organization. Among these, the fountain, located in the courtyard of the Serafim Hotel today, has a more intense decoration organization than the others.
Some of the Prominent Fountain Structures That Can Be Seen Today in Mustafapaşa
The fountain, also known as the Seyyid Mustafa Pasha Fountain, still functions today. Today, it is located to the south of the Kebir Mosque. It was removed from its original location and moved to its current location during the road widening between the madrasa and the mosque. According to the marble inscription in the middle of the niche facade, it was built by Mustafa Pasha in 1804-1805. The writing contains the inscription “صاحب الخیرات والحسنات سید مصطفی پاشا ۱۲۱۹” in Arabic. The inscription was written in relief technique and with celi-sulus calligraphy. The single-arched and single-sided fountain was constructed of smooth cut basalt stone. A low arch surrounds the fountain niche with profile moldings. This arch is fitted on piled pillars in the form of columns. There is a basin-shaped trough under the two faucets that are connected later.
The fountain, which is still active today, is located on the left of the slope on the way from Davutlu Mevkii to the Cappadocia Art and History Museum via Dere Street and diagonally opposite the entrance door of the Sipahi mosque. According to the marble inscription in the middle of the niche facade, it was built by Mustafa Pasha in 1804-1805. The inscription was written in relief technique and with thuluth calligraphy.
The fountain, which was built entirely of smooth cut stone and leaning against the rock behind it, has two arches and a single facade. Pointed arches surround the fountain niches. The arches sit on the pillars in the middle and on the sides. The concrete trough that continues along the niche was added here later. The niche facade in the south of the fountain is relativelly well-preseverd while the north is in poor condition.
The fountain is located in the middle of Cumhuriyet Square and actively used today. Although the exact date is not known since it does not have an inscription, it was built in 1951 according to the testimonies of the villagers. Examples similar to the multi-faceted design of the building can be found in several fountains built in 19th century in the immediate vicinity. It is very suitable for the square fountain feature in terms of its location and multi-faceted nature. The taps of the fountain are located in niches surrounded by profile moldings. There are relief palmettes and curved branch motifs on the upper part of the faucets. On the upper part of the fountain, there is a profile molded eaves surrounding the four facades. The “S” and “C” curved crowns on the eaves, which repeat on every facade, enliven the building.
Aydın, R. (2020). Ürgüp Çeşmeleri. Kayseri: Kimlik Yayınları.
Sözen, M. ve Tanyeli, U. (2012) Sanat Kavram ve Terimleri Sözlüğü. İstanbul: Remzi Kitabevi.